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Life and Resistance in the Mapuche Territory, Chile. Vida y Resistencia en el Territorio Mapuche, Chile.

Criminalización de la demanda Mapuche y aplicación de Ley Antiterrorista.= Criminalization of the Mapuche demand and Application of an Anti-Terrorist Law.

In 1984, under the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet, the anti-terrorist law was enacted, and the sentences for crimes already established in the Criminal Code (fire, illicit association, homicide or kidnapping) were toughened and even doubled in some cases. The anti-terrorist law allows the use of "faceless" witnesses, restricts access to precautionary measures and extends periods of preventive detention.

In line with George W. Bush’s "war against terrorism", President Ricardo Lagos invokes the anti-terrorist law against the Mapuche people for the first time in 2001. By 2014, this law had been invoked in 19 emblematic cases involving 108 people. The vast majority of these cases are related to indigenous land claims. The only Mapuche convicted under this law were released after winning a case against the Chilean State before the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. However, all the Mapuche accused under this law have spent extended periods in pre-trial detention.

Different international organizations, such as the UN and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, have declared that the criminalization of the Mapuche social demand through the use of this law is incompatible with international human rights law.